Therefore, sports gambling is a smaller contributor to tax coffers compared to more traditional tax sources such as income and taxable sales or. Tony Romo, then near the end of his playing career with the Dallas Cowboys, was scheduled to headline a fantasy football convention at the. Professional sports were created by bookies to give people things to bet on, not due to demand from spectators to watch games. 2022 MASTERS TOURNAMENT BETTING ODDS
In the two years following the decision, dozens of states have established sports betting operations. For professional sports athletes and their agents, this new era brings with it questions of how state laws regarding the right of publicity will interact with laws governing sports betting operations.
Complicating this question is well-established precedent governing fantasy sports and the online platforms that profit off of the name, image, and likeness of professional athletes. Against this backdrop, female professional athletes continue to earn significantly lower salaries than their male counterparts.
This Article examines the gender wage gap in professional soccer and basketball, and explains the significance and history of PASPA. The raw numbers make it easy to assume that women make less money simply because fans prefer men's games -- that pay follows revenues, and revenues follow popularity.
But the truth is more complicated, because a league's financial data also embeds its history, opportunities and labor relations. Has commitment been equal? Is the allocation of the best talent to thinking about ways to grow fan engagement, innovation or player experience happening? When I think of pay equity, I think of the opportunity that the NBA and other male sports leagues have to be successful.
And these provisions have tilted strongly, almost exclusively, toward men's sports for decades. First, investment. A league requires seed money to grow. That includes outlays by committed owners with deep pockets, rather than the unstable financing that has so often plagued franchises in women's sports. It also includes corporate sponsorship.
Investment includes public money too, usually in the form of taxpayer-financed stadiums. New arenas allow teams to improve their game experience, hike prices and build up adjoining land. And men's leagues have proved adept at getting state and local governments to defray the costs of that development. As Berri puts it: "Men love investing in men's sports. From to , municipalities in the U. But while women's clubs are sharing some of the new pitches and a handful of NBA facilities too , when it comes to securing arenas as primary occupants, the women's game has barely arrived at the table.
In , Tacoma and Louisville are scheduled to open the first soccer-specific stadiums with National Women's Soccer League clubs as their highest-level tenants. Women's National Team Players Association. And we need access to better stadiums, facilities and everything that makes a better entertainment product. But we need investors with the mindset that there's tons of value here that hasn't been shown before who will go unlock it.
Leagues and clubs are subject to what economists call "network externality," which means the value of something depends on how many consumers use it. Think of cellphones: If you were the only person to have one, your phone would be useless. It's when the number of people with them grows that the devices become valuable. In the same way, if you're the only fan you know of a new sports team, your experience will be extremely limited.
Your joys and agonies and memories increase exponentially as your network of friends and family involved with the same team expands. Successful sports build enough familiarity and loyalty that their followers spread, find one another and reach a critical mass that, like a chain reaction in a nuclear power plant, creates a new energy that feeds on itself over time.
And it can take decades for leagues and franchises to develop faith and establish their footing. The WNBA is scheduled to play its 24th season this year. The NFL was the same age in , a year when it fielded only eight teams, including the Brooklyn Dodgers, and averaged a third of its per-game attendance. Women's professional soccer was actually banned in Germany until , England until and Brazil until ; the NWSL, its latest and longest-lived incarnation in the U.
Of course, the sports world is bigger and more lucrative today. But a generation is still a generation. And make no mistake, fans today have more access than ever to the games played by female athletes, because a burgeoning number of networks and apps, hungry to acquire and offer new content, are programming all kinds of formerly "niche" sports. ESPN, for instance, dedicated more than 16, hours across all its platforms and partners to the programming of women's sporting events last year, up from 7, in and just 1, in NBC and its fleet of cable channels showed a record And the media surge is lifting smaller sports onto regional, digital and streaming platforms.
Sustained exposure has certainly been a boon to college softball, to which ESPN has held the rights for 40 years. Broadcasts have spurred fan interest. That's the chain reaction of network externalities. On the other hand, sports news and highlight segments have historically focused overwhelmingly on men.
In , for example, a majority of the most popular sports sites on the Internet didn't dedicate even one page to a women's sport or league, according to research by Berri. Earlier studies from to drew similar conclusions, whether looking at daily highlights or Olympic coverage, conveyed through print or images, on television or in newspapers or magazines: Men's sports got more coverage -- and more exciting coverage.
Viewing stories about men's sports was like "watching that classic s Batman TV show Bam! Meanwhile, listening to announcers talk about women's sports "was usually like hearing someone deliver a boring afterthought, with an obvious lack of enthusiasm. Most major sites have now joined ESPN, which launched espnW in , in allocating space to women's sports across multiple dedicated pages, particularly for basketball and soccer.
The Athletic, for example, expanded its reporting in to include regular coverage of all 12 WNBA clubs and women's college basketball. But when it comes to getting the kind of daily, comprehensive news, analysis and statistics that multiple media outlets and platforms routinely provide for men's teams, most women's sports still lag. Putting together all of the factors that affect league revenues -- investment, time and media -- it's apparent that most women's sports have struggled for years with what the Statista report calls a vicious cycle, which reverses the pattern that college softball has experienced.
Low investment and media coverage have led to limited viewership, rights deals and sponsorships, which leads to low pay, which hampers the development of new talent and initiatives, which leads to Just maybe, however, that cycle is breaking at this moment, because women athletes are changing the terms of business in two of the world's biggest sports.
Soccer from to , said in a declaration to the equal pay lawsuit. S women's and men's national soccer teams is complicated. The squads face different adversaries, at different levels of competition, on different schedules, including World Cup cycles in different years.
They have different collective bargaining agreements with U. Soccer, which pays base salaries, NWSL subsidies and performance bonuses to women while compensating men through much larger bonuses. To secure international friendlies, the men's team pays and sometimes earns appearance fees, which don't exist for women.
But Gulati's first reason for paying them unequal rates was simple indeed: The women were playing better, so they would have earned more. The U. For years, the MNT had posted significantly more from events than the WNT -- more than three times as much from to , according to data from U. Soccer's most recent financial statements.
These numbers include gate receipts but not sponsorship or broadcast-rights money, which account for about half of all USSF revenue but which the federation does not report separately for the MNT and WNT. Today, grassroots support for the national teams seem to be at parity.
And the equal pay lawsuit has exposed just how out of whack performance and pay have become in American soccer, legally or not. Suppose we take the various rates of compensation for the men's national team -- bonuses for appearances and wins in friendlies, tournaments and World Cups -- and apply them to the members of the women's national team, player by player. That's the approach taken by Finnie Bevin Cook, an economist who compiled a report for the plaintiffs in the equal pay lawsuit. Beyond anticipating the savings from that huge gulf, Gulati had a second simple reason for paying men and women differently: U.
Soccer replicates the compensation practices of FIFA, the organization that is by far the biggest driver of unequal pay in global soccer. Realizing that FIFA awards much bigger prizes in men's events, the federation gave greater incentives and rewards to the men's national team, hoping they would bring home more cash. As Gulati put it: "I believed that the MNT's participation and success in their tournament would result in the receipt of substantially more prize money from FIFA than the WNT's participation and success in their tournament.
They could, for example, have tighter shorts. While men have always played on grass, FIFA staged the Women's World Cup at arenas with artificial turf, which American striker Sydney Leroux, one of dozens of athletes who protested, likened to "running pretty much on cement. Soccer's lobbyists even used it to argue that the American women's national team is paid fairly, simply because there's so much less available to pay them. But the number was wrong. There actually isn't any correct number, because income data isn't broken out anywhere for the Women's World Cup.
FIFA commingles broadcasting rights and sponsorships for the men's and women's tournaments. This new reality will only be reflected in our future financial results. Matches across the Women's World Cup, for example, had an average live viewership of And overall, viewers consumed 2. As totals, these numbers are considerably smaller than for the men's game, but they are also generally growing much faster.
There are different ways to weight these audience eyeballs and viewing times, and to project future statistics. Soccer has purposefully withheld and obscured the revenues that it has received through similar marketing deals.
Soccer to make up the gap. It would seriously impair our ability to support our mission and invest in these other critical developmental areas.
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The designated players take a huge bite out of the MLS pie, but the remainder is divvied up fairly equally. Several policies could fuel the equality of these leagues. To begin with, both the NBA and NHL impose salary floors, meaning that teams must spend a certain percent of the cap on players each year.
Also driving the low coefficients could be limits on individual earnings. Lastly, there seems to be a relationship between roster size and inequality. Share this:. However, this is based on the viewership and fanbase , which is, in turn, influenced by the androcentric nature of sports. It is important, as well, to note that fans and viewers of sports are largely men, as women are often times restrained by systemic barriers which prevent them from viewing sport, such as the lack of access to financial and physical resources, mobility issues and the fear of violence from attending sport events.
This is an argument that has been upheld by some of the most popular elite sports. In professional tennis, men play five sets per match and women play three sets per match, a rule based on the assumption that women are physically weaker than men.
Yet, the quality of performance can decline regardless of gender, and this should not then be used as a parameter to pay one gender more than the other. Although the Grand Slam s have been paying the same prize money to men and women since , female tennis players are paid much less at women-only tournaments than what male players are paid at men-only events. While it could be true that men have better strength and speed than women, these are only two aspects of a body which matter in sport, and they cannot form the basis to pay men more than women.
Women could be better at other aspects like balance and flexibility, but this does not mean that women in sports that require flexibility and balance are paid more than men. Representation issues The weak representation of women in sports governance structures is also a cause of the persistence of the pay gap in the sport industry. Female representation in some governance structures has improved, but this has only happened recently. Further, most of the governing bodies still need a stronger push to enhance female membership.
There is still a need to strengthen representation at international as well as national sports governance institutions to add the much-needed perspective of women.
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